Философия - главная    Психология    История    Авторам и читателям    Контакты   


This helps prevent an accidental chain reaction
between the larger U-235 mass and its `bullet' counterpart within the bomb.
Also note that while U-238 cannot facilitate a chain-reaction, it can be
neutron-saturated to produce Plutonium (Pu-239). Plutonium is fissionable and
can be used in place of Uranium-235 {albeit, with a different model of
detonator} in an atomic bomb. [See Sections 3 & 4 of this file.])
Both isotopes of Uranium are naturally radioactive. Their bulky atoms
disintegrate over a period of time. Given enough time, (over 100,000 years or
more) Uranium will eventually lose so many particles that it will turn into
the metal lead. However, this process can be accelerated. This process is
known as the chain reaction. Instead of disintegrating slowly, the atoms are
forcibly split by neutrons forcing their way into the nucleus. A U-235 atom
is so unstable that a blow from a single neutron is enough to split it and
henceforth bring on a chain reaction. This can happen even when a critical
mass is present. When this chain reaction occurs, the Uranium atom splits
into two smaller atoms of different elements, such as Barium and Krypton.
When a U-235 atom splits, it gives off energy in the form of heat and
Gamma radiation, which is the most powerful form of radioactivity and the most
lethal. When this reaction occurs, the split atom will also give off two or
three of its `spare' neutrons, which are not needed to make either Barium or
Krypton. These spare neutrons fly out with sufficient force to split other
atoms they come in contact with. [See chart below] In theory, it is
necessary to split only one U-235 atom, and the neutrons from this will split
other atoms, which will split more...so on and so forth. This progression
does not take place arithmetically, but geometrically. All of this will
happen within a millionth of a second.
The minimum amount to start a chain reaction as described above is known
as SuperCritical Mass. The actual mass needed to facilitate this chain
reaction depends upon the purity of the material, but for pure U-235, it is
110 pounds (50 kilograms), but no Uranium is never quite pure, so in reality
more will be needed.
Uranium is not the only material used for making atomic bombs. Another
material is the element Plutonium, in its isotope Pu-239. Plutonium is not
found naturally (except in minute traces) and is always made from Uranium.
The only way to produce Plutonium from Uranium is to process U-238 through a
nuclear reactor. After a period of time, the intense radioactivity causes the
metal to pick up extra particles, so that more and more of its atoms turn into
Plutonium will not start a fast chain reaction by itself, but this
difficulty is overcome by having a neutron source, a highly radioactive
material that gives off neutrons faster than the Plutonium itself. In certain
types of bombs, a mixture of the elements Beryllium and Polonium is used to
bring about this reaction. Only a small piece is needed. The material is not
fissionable in and of itself, but merely acts as a catalyst to the greater


- Diagram of a Chain Reaction -

[1]------------------------------> o
. o o .
. o_0_o . <-----------------------[2]
. o 0 o .
. o o .
. o o. .o o .
[3]-----------------------> . o_0_o"o_0_o .
. o 0 o~o 0 o .
. o o.".o o .
/ | \
|/_ | _\|
~~ | ~~
o o | o o
[4]-----------------> o_0_o | o_0_o <---------------[5]
o~0~o | o~0~o
o o ) | ( o o
/ o \
/ [1] \
/ \
/ \
/ \
o [1] [1] o
. o o . . o o . . o o .
. o_0_o . . o_0_o . . o_0_o .
. o 0 o . <-[2]-> . o 0 o . <-[2]-> . o 0 o .
. o o . . o o . . o o .
/ | \
|/_ \|/ _\|
~~ ~ ~~
. o o. .o o . . o o. .o o . . o o. .o o .
. o_0_o"o_0_o . . o_0_o"o_0_o . . o_0_o"o_0_o .
. o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o .
. o o.".o o . . o o.".o o . . o o.".o o .
. | . . | . . | .
/ | \ / | \ / | \
: | : : | : : | :
: | : : | : : | :
\:/ | \:/ \:/ | \:/ \:/ | \:/
~ | ~ ~ | ~ ~ | ~
[4] o o | o o [5] [4] o o | o o [5] [4] o o | o o [5]
o_0_o | o_0_o o_0_o | o_0_o o_0_o | o_0_o
o~0~o | o~0~o o~0~o | o~0~o o~0~o | o~0~o
o o ) | ( o o o o ) | ( o o o o ) | ( o o
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ o \ / o \ / o \
/ [1] \ / [1] \ / [1] \
o o o o o o
[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]


- Diagram Outline -

[1] - Incoming Neutron
[2] - Uranium-235
[3] - Uranium-236
[4] - Barium Atom
[5] - Krypton Atom


-End of section 2-
-Diagrams & Documentation of the Atomic Bomb-
=== Cut ===
С yважением, MeteO
--- GoldED 3.00.Beta3+
* Origin: Мой адpес не дом и не yлица, мой адpес (2:5020/1376.43)
File courtesy of Outlaw Labs

III. The Mechanism of The Bomb

An ordinary aircraft altimeter uses a type of Aneroid Barometer which
measures the changes in air pressure at different heights. However, changes
in air pressure due to the weather can adversely affect the altimeter's
readings. It is far more favorable to use a radar (or radio) altimeter for
enhanced accuracy when the bomb reaches Ground Zero.
While Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave (FM CW) is more complicated,
the accuracy of it far surpasses any other type of altimeter. Like simple
pulse systems, signals are emitted from a radar aerial (the bomb), bounced off
the ground and received back at the bomb's altimeter. This pulse system
applies to the more advanced altimeter system, only the signal is continuous
and centered around a high frequency such as 4200 MHz. This signal is
arranged to steadily increase at 200 MHz per interval before dropping back to
its original frequency.
As the descent of the bomb begins, the altimeter transmitter will send
out a pulse starting at 4200 MHz. By the time that pulse has returned, the
altimeter transmitter will be emitting a higher frequency. The difference
depends on how long the pulse has taken to do the return journey. When these
two frequencies are mixed electronically, a new frequency (the difference
between the two) emerges. The value of this new frequency is measured by the
built-in microchips. This value is directly proportional to the distance
travelled by the original pulse, so it can be used to give the actual height.
In practice, a typical FM CW radar today would sweep 120 times per
second. Its range would be up to 10,000 feet (3000 m) over land and 20,000
feet (6000 m) over sea, since sound reflections from water surfaces are
The accuracy of these altimeters is within 5 feet (1.5 m) for the higher
ranges. Being that the ideal airburst for the atomic bomb is usually set for
1,980 feet, this error factor is not of enormous concern.
The high cost of these radar-type altimeters has prevented their use in
commercial applications, but the decreasing cost of electronic components
should make them competitive with barometric types before too long.

Air Pressure Detonator
The air pressure detonator can be a very complex mechanism, but for all
practical purposes, a simpler model can be used. At high altitudes, the air
is of lesser pressure. As the altitude drops, the air pressure increases. A
simple piece of very thin magnetized metal can be used as an air pressure
detonator. All that is needed is for the strip of metal to have a bubble of
extremely thin metal forged in the center and have it placed directly
underneath the electrical contact which will trigger the conventional
explosive detonation. Before setting the strip in place, push the bubble in
so that it will be inverted.
Once the air pressure has achieved the desired level, the magnetic bubble
will snap back into its original position and strike the contact, thus
completing the circuit and setting off the explosive(s).

Detonating Head
The detonating head (or heads, depending on whether a Uranium or
Plutonium bomb is being used as a model) that is seated in the conventional
explosive charge(s) is similar to the standard-issue blasting cap. It merely
serves as a catalyst to bring about a greater explosion. Calibration of this
device is essential. Too small of a detonating head will only cause a
colossal dud that will be doubly dangerous since someone's got to disarm and
re-fit the bomb with another detonating head. (an added measure of discomfort
comes from the knowledge that the conventional explosive may have detonated
with insufficient force to weld the radioactive metals. This will cause a
supercritical mass that could go off at any time.) The detonating head will
receive an electric charge from the either the air pressure detonator or the
radar altimeter's coordinating detonator, depending on what type of system is
used. The Du Pont company makes rather excellent blasting caps that can be
easily modified to suit the required specifications.

Conventional Explosive Charge(s)
This explosive is used to introduce (and weld) the lesser amount of
Uranium to the greater amount within the bomb's housing. [The amount of
pressure needed to bring this about is unknown and possibly classified by the
United States Government for reasons of National Security]
Plastic explosives work best in this situation since they can be
manipulated to enable both a Uranium bomb and a Plutonium bomb to detonate.
One very good explosive is Urea Nitrate. The directions on how to make Urea
Nitrate are as follows:
- Ingredients -
[1] 1 cup concentrated solution of uric acid (C5 H4 N4 O3)
[2] 1/3 cup of nitric acid
[3] 4 heat-resistant glass containers
[4] 4 filters (coffee filters will do)

Filter the concentrated solution of uric acid through a filter to remove
impurities. Slowly add 1/3 cup of nitric acid to the solution and let the
mixture stand for 1 hour. Filter again as before. This time the Urea Nitrate
crystals will collect on the filter. Wash the crystals by pouring water over
them while they are in the filter. Remove the crystals from the filter and
allow 16 hours for them to dry. This explosive will need a blasting cap to

It may be necessary to make a quantity larger than the aforementioned
list calls for to bring about an explosion great enough to cause the Uranium
(or Plutonium) sections to weld together on impact.

Neutron Deflector
The neutron deflector is comprised solely of Uranium-238. Not only is
U-238 non-fissionable, it also has the unique ability to reflect neutrons back
to their source.
The U-238 neutron deflector can serve 2 purposes. In a Uranium bomb, the
neutron deflector serves as a safeguard to keep an accidental supercritical
mass from occurring by bouncing the stray neutrons from the `bullet'
counterpart of the Uranium mass away from the greater mass below it (and vice-
versa). The neutron deflector in a Plutonium bomb actually helps the wedges
of Plutonium retain their neutrons by `reflecting' the stray particles back
into the center of the assembly. [See diagram in Section 4 of this file.]

Uranium & Plutonium
Uranium-235 is very difficult to extract. In fact, for every 25,000 tons
of Uranium ore that is mined from the earth, only 50 tons of Uranium metal can
be refined from that, and 99.3% of that metal is U-238 which is too stable to
be used as an active agent in an atomic detonation. To make matters even more
complicated, no ordinary chemical extraction can separate the two isotopes
since both U-235 and U-238 possess precisely identical chemical
characteristics. The only methods that can effectively separate U-235 from
U-238 are mechanical methods.
U-235 is slightly, but only slightly, lighter than its counterpart,
U-238. A system of gaseous diffusion is used to begin the separating process
between the two isotopes. In this system, Uranium is combined with fluorine
to form Uranium Hexafluoride gas. This mixture is then propelled by low-
pressure pumps through a series of extremely fine porous barriers. Because
the U-235 atoms are lighter and thus propelled faster than the U-238 atoms,
they could penetrate the barriers more rapidly. As a result, the
U-235's concentration became successively greater as it passed through each
barrier. After passing through several thousand barriers, the Uranium
Hexafluoride contains a relatively high concentration of U-235 -- 2% pure
Uranium in the case of reactor fuel, and if pushed further could
(theoretically) yield up to 95% pure Uranium for use in an atomic bomb.
Once the process of gaseous diffusion is finished, the Uranium must be
refined once again. Magnetic separation of the extract from the previous
enriching process is then implemented to further refine the Uranium. This
involves electrically charging Uranium Tetrachloride gas and directing it past
a weak electromagnet. Since the lighter U-235 particles in the gas stream are
less affected by the magnetic pull, they can be gradually separated from the
Following the first two procedures, a third enrichment process is then
applied to the extract from the second process. In this procedure, a gas
centrifuge is brought into action to further separate the lighter U-235 from
its heavier counter-isotope. Centrifugal force separates the two isotopes of
Uranium by their mass. Once all of these procedures have been completed, all
that need be done is to place the properly molded components of Uranium-235
inside a warhead that will facilitate an atomic detonation.
Supercritical mass for Uranium-235 is defined as 110 lbs (50 kgs) of
pure Uranium.
Depending on the refining process(es) used when purifying the U-235 for
use, along with the design of the warhead mechanism and the altitude at which
it detonates, the explosive force of the A-bomb can range anywhere from 1
kiloton (which equals 1,000 tons of TNT) to 20 megatons (which equals 20
million tons of TNT -- which, by the way, is the smallest strategic nuclear
warhead we possess today. {Point in fact -- One Trident Nuclear Submarine
carries as much destructive power as 25 World War II's}).
While Uranium is an ideally fissionable material, it is not the only one.
Plutonium can be used in an atomic bomb as well. By leaving U-238 inside an
atomic reactor for an extended period of time, the U-238 picks up extra
particles (neutrons especially) and gradually is transformed into the element
Plutonium is fissionable, but not as easily fissionable as Uranium.
While Uranium can be detonated by a simple 2-part gun-type device, Plutonium
must be detonated by a more complex 32-part implosion chamber along with a
stronger conventional explosive, a greater striking velocity and a
simultaneous triggering mechanism for the conventional explosive packs. Along
with all of these requirements comes the additional task of introducing a fine
mixture of Beryllium and Polonium to this metal while all of these actions are
1 2 3 4